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Rosa Parks was an American civil rights activist whose refusal to give up her seat on a public bus precipitated the —56 Montgomery bus boycott in Alabama, which became the spark that ignited the civil rights movement in the United States. The boycott also helped give rise to the American civil rights movement. Rosa Parks was not the first Black woman to refuse to give up her seat on a segregated bus, though her story attracted the most attention nationwide. Nine months before Parks, year-old Claudette Colvin had refused to give up her bus seat, as had dozens of other Black women throughout the history of segregated public transit. In Rosa Parks published Rosa Parks: My Storyan autobiography written with Jim Haskins that described her role in the American civil rights movementbeyond her refusal to give up her seat on a segregated public bus to white passengers. When she was two years old, shortly after the birth of her younger brother, Sylvester, her parents chose to separate.
Rosa parks: timeline of her life, montgomery bus boycott and death
Rosa Parks is best known for refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, inwhich sparked a yearlong boycott that was a turning point in the civil rights movement. However, there was much more to Parks' life. Born in Alabama inshe grew up in a segregated world that constantly exposed her to discrimination. Before her defiant act on that bus, she'd already fought back against injustice by ing the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP and investigating crimes committed against Black people.
After the bus boycott, Parks continued to participate in the civil rights movement. She attended the March on Washington in and in witnessed the ing of the Voting Rights Act. The following timeline covers notable events and achievements in Parks' long and remarkable life:. She also starts attending a segregated school in Pine Level, Alabama.
As the only woman at her first meeting, she is named secretary of the group. Parks' work for the NAACP will also include investigating crimes against Black people such as murder, assaults and police brutality. Parks attempts to register to vote but is told she failed the literacy test required of Black voters.
September Recy Taylor, a Black woman, is gang-raped by six white men. Recy Taylor to advocate for legal action against Taylor's assailants.
The case becomes national news but the rapists are never convicted. Alongside other civil rights activists, both Black and white, she discusses how to integrate schools following the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision of The driver, who had treated Parks rudely and evicted her from his bus incontacts the police and she is arrested.
December 5, Though Parks was not the first Black woman arrested for defying segregation on city buses, news of her case spurs the Black community to begin a boycott of Montgomery buses. Parks' trial takes place. Her lawyers file an appeal. January 7, Parks is let go from her job as a tailor's assistant at the Montgomery Fair department store.
January Raymond quits his barbershop job after discussion of his wife and the boycott is forbidden. February 22, Parks is among a group of indicted boycott leaders who present themselves for arrest.
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She is quickly released. The case against Parks is eventually dismissed.
She also travels across the country to speak about the boycott. December 21, Following a Supreme Court ruling that segregated buses are unconstitutional, the day boycott ends. Parks is photographed sitting at the front of a bus for Look magazine. Rosa Parks sits in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, after the Supreme Court ruled segregation illegal on the city bus system on December 21, The man sitting behind Parks is Nicholas C.
Chriss, a reporter for United Press International out of Atlanta. October Parks becomes a hostess at the Holly Tree Inn, part of the Hampton Institute in Virginia, but leaves after the fall semester in to re her husband and mother in Detroit. July A Jet magazine article reveals that Parks and her family have been struggling financially, due in part to her health problems. No women are invited to speak at the event, but Parks is among those singled out for a "Tribute to Women" in the civil rights movement. March 1, Parks takes a job in the Detroit office of newly elected Congressman John Conyers, where her tasks include answering phones and aiding constituents.
She stays in this position until her retirement in March 25, Parks s the march to Montgomery for equal voting rights. Many of the marchers do not recognize her but in the end she is acknowledged and invited to speak at the capitol building. July 23, Parks is in Detroit during five days of rioting. Amid the upheaval, her husband's barbershop is destroyed. August 30, A "People's Tribunal" is held regarding the deaths of three young Black men during the Detroit riots.
Parks serves on the jury, which finds the police who were at the scene guilty the officers faced no such repercussions in the legal system. Earlier Clinton presented Parks with the Medal of Freedom.
April 14, Parks and the hip-hop group Outkast reach an out-of-court settlement regarding their song "Rosa Parks. Her body is brought to lie in honor at the U. Capitol Rotunda, the first time for a woman to receive this recognition.
Before she became a nationally admired civil rights icon, Rosa Parks' life consisted of ups and downs that included struggles to support her family and taking new paths in activism. By refusing to give up her seat on a segregated bus to a white passenger inthe department store seamstress launched a major movement on the road to equality. In addition to freeing slaves, Tubman was also a Civil War spy, nurse and supporter of women's suffrage. After she couldn't find a solution for her own hair loss, the self-made millionaire took matters into her own hands.
The African American writer shared her message of "survival" and "hope" in the poem. Tragedy brought the widows of Martin Luther King Jr. The crash left the painter with life-long pain and injuries that would fuel the vibrant, intensely personal artwork that would make her famous. Tubman continued to help the enslaved, becoming a leader of the Union and then serving the community until her death. The following timeline covers notable events and achievements in Parks' long and remarkable life: February 4, Rosa Louise McCauley born in Tuskegee, Alabama to James and Leona McCauley A six-year-old Parks begins picking cotton alongside her grandparents.
December 18, Rosa weds Raymond Parks. By Sara Kettler.
By Tim Ott. By Rachel Chang. By Barbara Maranzani. By Hadley Meares.