- I'm 25 years old
- What is my ethnicity:
- Sexual orientation:
- What is the color of my hair:
- Long luxuriant golden hair
- I can speak:
- My figure type:
- My body features is chubby
- What I like to drink:
- My hobbies:
- Listening to music
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The gender gap in substance use disorders SUDscharacterized by greater prevalence in men, is narrowing, highlighting the importance of understanding sex and gender differences in SUD etiology and maintenance. Biological sex differences are evident across an array of systems, including brain structure and function, endocrine function, and metabolic function. Gender i.
Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Deing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. The study was conducted from May to January in Ahvaz, Iran.
A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls.
Adolescence is a critical age for girls throughout the world. For many girls in the developing world, the mere commencement of puberty marks a time of increased vulnerability to early marriage [ 2 ] and entry into sexual life [ 3 ]. Today, there are estimated million teenage girls in the world of whom 88 percent live in the developing countries [ 3 ]. While the age of marriage is rising for both sexes, early marriage has still remained a problem in these societies. Early marriage as a global issue and a widespread harmful practice affects enormous s of girls [ 5 ].
According to United Nations Population Fund, nearly one in three girls continues to marry as a teenager in many parts of the developing world [ 2 ]. The extent of early marriage varies between countries and regions.
The highest rates are reported in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, where 44 percent and 39 percent of girls, respectively, were married before the age of According to data from 33 countries, trends in marriage indicate limited change since the International Conference on Population and Development ICPD [ 3 ]. Iran is no exception in this regard. Iranian studies indicate that more than 7.
The rate of teen early marriage in rural and urban areas has been reported as According to the latest census in Iran, the highest of registered marriage pertained to women who were 15—19 years of age events [ 7 ]. Early marriage is most likely to occur among girls who are poor, have low education level, and live in rural areas [ 2 ]. It denies girls opportunities to educate and to build life skills, separates them from family and friends, compromises their ability to assume health promotion practices and seek timely care, and enhances their vulnerability to considerable health and social problems [ 59 — 11 ].
Recent evidence argues that early marriage can be associated with adverse consequences not only for teenage girls but also for children they bear [ 11 ].
Sex and gender differences in substance use disorders
High rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, preterm labor, delivery of low birth weight babies, and fetal and maternal mortality are observed among teenage girls and are strongly correlated with early marriage [ 310 ]. Moreover, the girls who are married as teenagers are also affected psychologically and they are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders [ 8 ]. They are especially at risk for physical and sexual violence within marriage [ 5 ]. WHO reports that 29 percent of all ever partnered teenage girls experience intimate partner violence.
The harmful impacts of domestic violence on the health and wellbeing of women and their children are well documented [ 3 ]. Thus, teenage girls are one of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world and investing in them is important for ensuring health, creating prosperity, and fulfilling human rights.
Addressing the needs of adolescents, particularly teenage girls, is necessary not only for their individual profit, but also to attain global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection [ 5 ]. Early marriage and parenthood are encouraged by Iranian culture.
In Iran, puberty and menarche are considered as time of transition to adulthood. Girls reaching this biological threshold means becoming eligible for marriage, regardless of age [ 12 ]. According to Iranian civil law, the legal age of marriage is set at thirteen for girls and fifteen for boys [ 6 ].
Determinants of early marriage from married girls’ perspectives in iranian setting: a qualitative study
Socioeconomic and cultural factors are the main determinants of age at marriage in Iran. A study by Matlabi et al. In Iran, early arranged marriage was very common in the past, and mate selection was mostly determined by parents and confirmed by kinship system. In the recent decades, early arranged marriage has still remained common in certain parts of the country regardless of the wide acceptance of modern familial values, norms, and attitudes toward marriage. In Iran as a multiethnic society, marriage patterns are different among ethnic groups [ 13 ].
Iran has witnessed fundamental economic, social, political, and cultural changes in the past three decades [ 13 ]. These structural changes have led ethnic groups to experience different levels of modernization and development, while maintaining their distinct cultural ethnic norms and values [ 14 ]. This condition could fuel norms and values reinforcing early marriage [ 13 ].
Although modernity has affected many aspects of human life, perspectives towards early marriage have not kept pace with this change. Economic hardship and an increase in poverty, mentioned as key determinants in the continuation of early marriage, may have reinforced the attitudes towards early marriage, particularly in some parts where family ties have been affected by this change [ 15 ].
In transition to modernity, regardless of recent general trends identified as being rising age at marriage, early marriage has still remained a problem in most societies [ 15 ] and has not received sufficient attention by researchers [ 1617 ]. It will contribute to deing and developing culturally responsive interventions and improving the health programs for these girls. A qualitative inquiry with content analysis approach was chosen as a research methodology. It is the suitable method to explore cultural context-bound subjects about which there is little knowledge [ 18 ].
Qualitative content analysis is a subjective interpretation of the content of text through the systematic process of coding and identifying themes or [ 19 ] to reach a broad and condensed description of the study phenomenon [ 18 ]. Qualitative content analysis consists of three approaches including conventional, directed, and summative [ 19 ]. In the current study, the conventional approach was employed. It must be noted that this paper is part of a larger qualitative study exploring motivations, perceptions, beliefs, values, and attitudes of married girls toward early marriage and, in this paper, the determinants of early marriage are presented as a part of those study findings.
This study was conducted from May to January in Ahvaz, Iran. Fifteen participants who attended the health care centers were selected through the purposeful sampling method.
For this purpose, the principle author approached the potential participants. Each participant who had inclusion criteria is provided with information about the research and encouraged to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were married girls, aged 3—19 years; speaking Persian language; living in Ahvaz geographical border; and willing to participate in this study. The demographic characteristics of participants are presented in Table 1. The main technique for data collection was interview. Interviews were conducted by a single researcher who is Ph.
The data was driven from 18 semistructured, in depth, and face-to-face interviews with fifteen participants.
For obtaining more information, three participants had two interview sessions. Sampling continued until saturation of data was reached. All participants were interviewed at a private room in the health care centers. The participants were asked to talk about the conditions that propelled them to early marriage. All interviews were audiorecorded in MP3 format and transcribed verbatim in Persian language. The conventional content analysis approach was applied to analyze the data using the method described by Graneheim and Lundman [ 20 ], as follows. All interviews were read several times to gain a sense of the whole.
The transcripts were divided into condensed meaning units that were abstracted and coded. Then, codes were compared according to similarities and differences and sorted into and sub constituting the manifest content. The tentative were revised by the research team members.
Finally, were formulated as the latent content of the text. In addition, all transcripts were translated from Persian language to English language by the authors who were fluent in both English and Persian languages. Credibility was established through choosing a capable research approach and suitable research team, applying purposeful sampling to select appropriate participants, prolonged engagement with participants and data, member checking and peer reviewing to verify the universality of the findings, and employing triangulation with multiple data collection such as field notes and participant diaries.
To assure dependability and confirmability, the external audit trail was done. In addition, a precise final report was provided on the research process to enhance transferability. The participants were informed about the purpose of the study, and written informed consent was ed by each participant and her husband for permission to participate in the study. Family structure as the first category refers to socioeconomic difficulties, cultural family values, and religious beliefs that propelled the study participants to early marriage.
Most participants had grown up in dysfunctional family with socioeconomic difficulties.
Visor de obras.
They had experienced difficult and excruciating childhood. This was a fundamental reason that persuaded them to get married. I could not get everything that I would like to have. I had a big and extended family. My mother was not able to take care of us at all. We [my sisters and I] could not tolerate this difficult situation. My mother wanted to get rid of her responsibilities toward her children, so I thought if I get married, everything will be better.
According to the participants, one of the main factors influencing their marriage-related decision-making was traditional and cultural family values.
One of the participants pointed out. My sisters all got married before the[sic] turned 16 too. Some participants believed that marriage makes people become more mature and responsible.