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Because the earliest Greek philosophers focused their attention upon the origin and nature of the physical world, they are often called cosmologists, or naturalists. Although monistic views which trace the origin of the world to a single substance prevailed at first, they were soon followed by several pluralistic theories which trace it to several ultimate substances. There is a consensusdating back at least to the 4th century bce and continuing to the present, that the first Greek philosopher was Thales of Miletus flourished 6th century bce.

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Thales was counted, however, among the legendary Seven Wise Men Sophoiwhose name derives from a term that then deated inventiveness and practical wisdom rather than speculative insight. Thales demonstrated these qualities by trying to give the mathematical knowledge that he derived from the Babylonians a more exact foundation and by using it for the solution of practical problems—such as the determination of the distance of a ship as seen from the shore or of the height of the Egyptian pyramids.

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Although he was also credited with predicting an eclipse of the Sunit is likely that he merely gave a natural explanation of one on the basis of Babylonian astronomical knowledge. Thales is considered the first Greek philosopher because he was the first to give a purely natural explanation of the origin of the world, free from mythological ingredients. He held that everything had come out of water —an explanation based on the discovery of fossil sea animals far inland.

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His tendency and that of his immediate successors to give nonmythological explanations was undoubtedly prompted by the fact that all of them lived on the coast of Asia Minorsurrounded by a of nations whose civilizations were much further advanced than that of the Greeks and whose own mythological explanations varied greatly. It appeared necessary, therefore, to make a fresh start on the basis of what a person could observe and infer by looking at the world as it presented itself. This procedure naturally resulted in a tendency to make sweeping generalizations on the basis of rather restricted, though carefully checked, observations.

Within this apeiron something arose to produce the opposites of hot and cold. These at once began to struggle with each other and produced the cosmos.

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The cold and wet partly dried up becoming solid earthpartly remained as waterand—by means of the hot—partly evaporated becoming air and mistits evaporating part by expansion splitting up the hot into fiery rings, which surround the whole cosmos. Because these rings are enveloped by mist, however, there remain only certain breathing holes that are visible to human beings, appearing to them as the Sun, Moon, and stars. Anaximander was the first to realize that upward and downward are not absolute but that downward means toward the middle of the Earth and upward away from it, so that the Earth had no need to be supported as Thales had believed by anything.

Lifebeing closely bound up with moisture, originated in the sea. All land animals, he held, are descendants of sea animals; because the first humans as newborn infants could not have survived without parents, Anaximander believed that they were born within an animal of another kind—specifically, a sea animal in which they were nurtured until they could fend for themselves.

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His position was for a long time thought to have been a step backward because, like Thales, he placed a special kind of matter at the beginning of the development of the world. But this criticism missed the point. Neither Thales nor Anaximander appear to have specified the way in which the other things arose out of water or apeiron. Anaximenes, however, declared that the other types of matter arose out of air by condensation and rarefaction.


In this way, what to Thales had been merely a beginning became a fundamental principle that remained essentially the same through all of its transmutations. This concept of a principle that remains the same through many transmutations is, furthermore, the presupposition of the idea that nothing can come out of nothing and that all of the comings to be and passings away that human beings observe are nothing but transmutations of something that essentially remains the same eternally. In this way it also lies at the bottom of all of the conservation laws—the laws of the conservation of matterforce, and energy—that have been basic in the development of physics.

Although Anaximenes of course did not realize all of the implications of his idea, its importance can hardly be exaggerated. But this is hardly an adequate characterization. It is, rather, characteristic of them that they did not clearly distinguish between kinds of matter, forces, and qualities, nor between physical and emotional qualities. To realize these ambiguities is important to an understanding of certain later developments in Greek philosophy. Xenophanes of Colophon c.

He criticized the popular notions of the gods, saying that people made the gods in their own image. But, more importantly, he argued that there could be only one God, the ruler of the universe, who must be eternal.

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For, being the strongest of all beings, he could not have come out of something less strong, nor could he be overcome or superseded by something else, because nothing could arise that is stronger than the strongest. The argument clearly rested on the axioms that nothing can come out of nothing and that nothing that exists can vanish. These axioms were made more explicit and carried to their logical and extreme conclusions by Parmenides of Elea born c. There can be no motion either, for it would have to be a motion into something that is—which is not possible since it would be blocked—or a motion into something that is not—which is equally impossible since what is not does not exist.

Hence, everything is solid, immobile being.

The familiar world, in which things move around, come into being, and pass away, is a world of mere belief doxa. In a second part of the poem, however, Parmenides tried to give an analytical of this world of belief, showing that it rested on constant distinctions between what is believed to be positive—i.

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It is ificant that Heracleitus of Ephesus c. Western philosophy. Additional Info. Load .

Ancient Greek and Roman philosophy The pre-Socratic philosophers Cosmology and the metaphysics of matter Because the earliest Greek philosophers focused their attention upon the origin and nature of the physical world, they are often called cosmologists, or naturalists. Monistic cosmologies There is a consensusdating back at least to the 4th century bce and continuing to the present, that the first Greek philosopher was Thales of Miletus flourished 6th century bce.

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