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Elaine Riddick was a confused and frightened year-old.
In honor of International Peace Month, we would like to recognize the accomplishments of a group of mathematicians who promoted peace.
Mathematics Department Diversity and Inclusion. Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russellwas a British polymath. As an academic, he worked in philosophymathematicsand logic.
His work has had a considerable influence on mathematicslogicset theorylinguisticsartificial intelligencecognitive sciencecomputer scienceand various areas of analytic philosophyespecially philosophy of mathematicsphilosophy of languageepistemology and metaphysics.
He was a public intellectualhistorian social criticpolitical activistand Nobel laureate. He was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. Russell was a pacifist who championed anti-imperialism and chaired the India League.
He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I. Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematicianphysicistengineerinventorand astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient historyand one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theoremsincluding: the area of a circle ; the surface area and volume of a sphere ; area of an ellipse ; the area under a parabola ; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution ; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution ; and the area of a spiral.
His other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi ; defining and investigating the spiral that now bears his name ; and devising a system using exponentiation for expressing very large s.
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He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomenafounding hydrostatics and statics. He is also credited with deing innovative machinessuch as his screw pumpcompound pulleysand defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the siege of Syracusewhere he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere and a cylinderwhich Archimedes had requested be placed on his tomb to represent his mathematical discoveries.
Benjamin Alvord. Benjamin Alvord was an American soldier, mathematician, and botanist. Alvord was born in Rutland, Vermontwhere he developed an interest in nature.
He attended the United States Military Academy and displayed a talent in mathematics. In he published in Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Posted to the remote Fort Vancouver, he continued his investigations and submitted his findings in but was frustrated by a fire. Inwhen he found that there are 96 circles which cut four given circles at a fixed angle and there are spheres which cut five given spheres at a fixed angle, he assembled all his for an article in American Journal of Mathematics.
He was ased to the 4th U. Infantry and participated in the Seminole Wars.
International peace month
He returned to West Point as an assistant professor of mathematics untilwhen he was again ased to the 4th Infantry. He spent 21 years of his military career with that regiment. He was on frontier, garrison, and engineer duty untilwhen he participated in the military occupation of the new state of Texas. Subsequently, he served during the Mexican—American Warbeing brevetted successively to captain and major for gallantry in a of important battles including the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Resaca de la Palma. He served as chief of staff to Major Folliott T.
After the war, he subsequently became paymaster of the District of Omaha and paymaster of the Department of the Platte.
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He became Paymaster General of the Army in and served in that capacity until his retirement from active service in He was promoted to brigadier general in Bastille Daywhich is a national holiday in France, is the anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille on July 14, It celebrates the actions of a mob of Frenchmen, tired of the rule of their king, who stormed a prison to get weapons and free prisoners. It marked the start of the French Revolution. The Revolution resulted in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen which served as a constitution and proclaimed the rights of French citizens.
In honor of Bastille Day, we would like to recognize the accomplishments of a group of French Mathematicians. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He is also considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology.
He was a founding member and the de facto early leader of the mathematical Bourbaki group. He made ificant contributions in the field of mathematics. His most important achievement was when he discovered a connection between theory and algebraic geometry. Moreover, he developed a theory on algebraic curves based on his study of Diophantine equations.
In the field of rational s, he introduced a topological ring known as the adele ring in algebraic theory. Weil also laid the groundwork for classical theory of quadratic forms with his development of the Weil representation. Alexander Grothendieck. Alexander Grothendieck was a mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry. He is considered by many to be the greatest mathematician of the 20th century.
Grothendieck began his productive and public career as a mathematician in He received his Fields Medal in for advances in algebraic geometry, homological algebra, and K-theory. He later became professor at the University of Montpellier and, while still producing relevant mathematical work, he withdrew from the mathematical community and devoted himself to political and religious pursuits first Buddhism and later a more Christian vision.
Inhe moved to the French village of Lasserre in the Pyrenees, where he lived in seclusion, still working tirelessly on mathematics until his death in Jacques Salomon Hadamard. Jacques Salomon Hadamard was a French mathematician who made major contributions in theory, complex analysis, differential geometry, and partial differential equations.
In Paris, Hadamard concentrated his interests on the problems of mathematical physics, in particular partial differential equations, the calculus of variations, and the foundations of functional analysis. He introduced the idea of well-posed problem and the method of descent in the theory of partial differential equations, culminating in his seminal book on the subject, based on lectures given at Yale University in Later in his life he wrote on probability theory and mathematical education.
Sophie Germain. Marie-Sophie Germain was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. When Germain was 13, the Bastille fell, and the revolutionary atmosphere of the city forced her to stay inside. Here she found J. Sophie Germain thought that if the geometry method, which at that time referred to all of pure mathematics, could hold such fascination for Archimedes, it was a subject worthy of study.
Later, Cousin visited Germain at home, encouraging her in her studies.
When night came, they would deny her warm clothes and a fire for her bedroom to try to keep her from studying, but after they left, she would take out candles, wrap herself in quilts and do mathematics. After some time, her mother even secretly supported her. Because of prejudice against her sex, she was unable to make a career out of mathematics, but she worked independently throughout her life. Before her death, Gauss had recommended that she be awarded an honorary degree, but that never occurred.
On June 27,she died from breast cancer. Juneteenth is a holiday celebrating the emancipation of those who had been enslaved in the United States. Originating in Galveston, Texas, it is now celebrated annually on June 19 throughout the United States, with varying official recognition. It is commemorated on the anniversary date of the June 19, announcement by Union Army general Gordon Granger, proclaiming freedom from slavery in Texas. In honor of Juneteenth, we will celebrate prominent mathematicians who excelled during the slavery era this month.
Thomas Fuller. He was born in Africa somewhere between present day Liberia and Benin. Late in his life his remarkable powers of calculation made him a tool of abolitionists to demonstrate blacks are not mentally inferior to whites. Fuller, though extraordinarily quick at calculations, appears not so much the equal of idiot savants as someone who had taught himself quick calculations. Many of those who met him advertised his general self-taught intelligence and decried the system which prevented him from formal education.
Our present new understanding of mathematics in Africa at that time allows us to claim that when Thomas Fuller arrived in Virginia, he had already developed his calculation abilities. His learning of words, a numeration system, of arithmetical operations, of riddles and mathematical games, etc.
Kelly Miller. Kelly Miller was anAmerican mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist, author, and an important figure in the intellectual life of black America for close to half a century.
He was born in in South Carolina, and showed an aptitude for mathematics early on in his schooling. He was awarded a scholarship to Howard University, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in InKelly became the first Black student to be admitted to Johns Hopkins University, where he performed graduate work in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. Appointed professor of mathematics at Howard inMiller introduced sociology the development structure and functioning of human society into the curriculum inserving as professor of sociology from to Miller graduated from Howard University School of Law in InMiller was appointed dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.
He was a participant in the March 5, meeting to celebrate the memory of Frederick Douglass, which founded the American Negro Academy led by Alexander Crummell.
Until the organization was discontinued inMiller remained one of the most active members of this first major African American learned society, refuting racist scholarship, promoting black claims to individual, social, and political equality, and publishing early histories and sociological studies of African American life. In FebruaryMiller was elected chairman of the Negro Sanhedrin, a civil rights conference held in Chicago that brought together representatives of 61 African-American organizations to forge closer ties and attempt to craft a common program for social and political reform.
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Charles Reason. Charles attended the African Free School. Reason aided in drafting a call to the first New York State Convention of Negroes in and advocated in New York City a manual-labor school to provide training in the industrial arts.
He created a normal teaching school as a remedy to the charge that black teachers were inefficient and incompetent. He decided to pursue a career in teaching, believing strongly that education was the best means for black advancement. In Reason and Charles B.